A refractive error is a very common eye condition that can cause blurred or reduced vision. It occurs when the eye fails to focus precisely and accurately  images from the outside world on to the retina.

What are the different types of refractive errors?

There are different types of refractive errors which are classified broadly as

    • Myopia


Also known as near sightendness where a person has difficulty in seeing clearly objects at distance

  • Hyperopia

Also known as farsightedness where a person has difficulty in seeing clearly close objects

  • Astigmatism

This is a condition where there is distorted vision resulting from an irregularly curved cornea

  • Presbyopia

This is not a refractive error. It is due to difficulty in reading or seeing at arm’s length usually starting after 40 years of age due to the loss of the ability of accomodation of the crystalline natural lens


  • Can refractive errors be prevented?

No, Refractive errors cannot be prevented. They can be diagnosed and corrected with an eye examination.

  • How are refractive errors treated?

Refrative errors can be treated with

  • Corrective glasses
  • Contact lenses
  • Refractive surgery

Surgical procedures like Implantable Collamer Lenses and Clear Lens Extraction in patients with very high refractive errors which may not be correctable by glasses/ contact lenses or refractive surgery

Contact lenses are special type of lenses which are worn on the surface of the eye to correct refractive errors. They provide patients convenience and improved cosmetic  appearance to the patient eliminating the need to wear glasses. They are used to correct various disorders like myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (far sightedness) and astigmatism etc.

  • How do contact lenses work?

Contact lenses are tiny discs with optical powers that rest on the surface of the eye in the layer of tears produced naturally by the eye.

  • How do I contact lenses?

Contact lenses are prescribed by the doctor after a complete eye examination and determination of the type of lens, power, size and material that is best suited for you.

  • How long do I wear contact lenses daily?

This depends on the material with which the contact lens is made. The doctor will educate you on the proper use of contact lenses. The doctor will advise on the duration of wear and frequency of replacing the contact lenses.

  • What are the differnent types of lenses?


  • Soft contact lenses

These lenses are made up of soft, flexible, plastic material. They are very comfortable on the eyes since they are gas permeable, that is, they allow oxygen from the atmosphere to pass through to the cornea.

  • Right Gas Permeable Contact lenses (RGP Lenses)

RGP contact lenses are more durable and provide sharp vision. They are less expense and long laster than the soft contact lenses. They also allow oxygen from the atmosphere to pass through to the cornea.

  • Disposable contact lenses

Till now contact lenses were availabe for yearly usage. Now – a – days we have a variety of disposable contact lenses which are desgined for use for a limited period of time.

 A brand new pair of lenses is used and discarded on a

  • Daily basis
  • Monthly basis
  • Quarterly basis


  • How do I take care of my contact lenses?

Your doctor will advise you on the best way to care for your prescribed lenses. Usually the lens need to be rinsed in the special solution provided with it before placing in the eye and after it should be stored in proper lens case after due cleaning at the end of the day. A person should not sleep with the lens on. Any home made solution like salt water or detergent water should not be used to clean the lenses. A person should avoid swimming with contact lenses on.

  • Why is lens care important?

The wearer must be responsible with regard to lens care, otherwise the lens can get contaminated with bacterial and fungal growth and cause infection in the eye.

  • What do I do if my eyes become red or irritated?

You should immediately remove the contact lenses, disinfect them if possible, switch over to corrective glasses and contact your doctor. Any redness or irritation in the eye in a person wearing contact lenses should be taken seriously. Some of the symptoms a patient may notice include pain, eye discomfort, watering, irritation, unusual sensitivity to light, itching, burning, blurred vision and swelling of the eyes.

  • Are there any risks involved with using contact lenses?

A person wearing contact lenses is at risk of developing eye infections if the contact lens is not properly cleaning, worn and maintained. Some of these conditions can develop suddenly and in rare cases can cause blindness.

Cataract is clouding of the crystalline lens in the eye which usually occurs with old age.

What happens when we get cataract?

The symptoms a person notices depends on the type and stage of cataract. Vision is blurred or reduced. Some people notice glare while driving at night facing head lights. Perception of colors and contrast sensitivity (ability to distinguish between light and dark shades) are reduced. If neglected, vision is reduced to a level that we cannot do our daily activities safely.

How does cataract develop?

The clouding of the crystalline lens result due to aging and hence is unavoidable in anybody. Therefore, cataract is essentially a process due to aging in the eye. However, cataract can be caused at any age due to certain other causes like diabetes mellitus especially if uncontrolled, injury to the eye, inflammation within the eye, exposure to ultraviolet radiation or due to prolonged intake of certain medications like steroids.

How can cataract be prevented?

There is no scientifically proven and effective modality for prevention of cataract.

Do both eyes get affected by cataract?

The condition usually affects both eye but almost always one eye affected earlier than the other.

Is there any non – surgical treatment available for cataract?

No, there are no medications or eyedrops that have been proved to dissolve or remove cataract eliminating the need for surgery

What is the treatment for cataract?

Surgical removal of the cataract and implantation of an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is the only definitive treatment for cataract.

When should a cataract be operated?

The ideal time to operate upon a cataract is when the patient is not able to safely do their daily activities.

What are the requirments to be fulfilled before a patient gets cataract surgery done?

  • Patient need to get a detailed eye examination, power of the intraocular lens IOL) needs to be calculated by the ophthalmologist
  • Diabetes, hypertension, cardiac problems, asthma need to under good control and patient in reasonable good health before surgery
  • ECG and a few blood tests need to be done before surgery
  • Few eye drops need to be applied a few days before surgery

Can I take my routine medications on the day of surgery?

All medications prescribed by the physician are to be taken on the day of surgery. However, diabetics need to skip the morning dose of anti – diabetic medications. Do not come fasting in the morning for the surgery, have a light breakfast and come to the hospital. Blood thinning medications like Aspirin, Clopidrogel are usually not stopped prior to phacoemulsification surgery. However, please ask your physician and ophthalmologist who will be ready to clarify regarding this.

What is the type of cataract surgery done in Vignesh Meenu Eye Clinic?

In Vignesh Meenu Eye Clinic, we do the latest, well established and effective surgical procedure called Phacoemulsification coupled with implantation of an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) to treat cataract.

What is done in phacoemulsifiction surgery?

In phacoemulsification, a key hole incision is made in the eye and the cataract is emulsified (crushed) and removed using a special probe which deliver ultrasonic energy for this process. Following this, a foldable intraocular lens is implanted through the key hole incision. Since the incision is very small, there is no need for sutures.

What is MICS?

The latest modification in phacoemulsification in which the surgical wound is much smaller (1.8 mm) through which cataract is removed and intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted is called MICS or Minimally Invasive Cataract Surgery. The process of wound healing and refractive stabilization is faster in MICS than traditional phacoemulsification.

Is cataract surgery painful? Is an injection required?

Phacoemulsification is painless and the eye is anesthetised with eye drops. Injection is not given as a routine unless in exceptional cases. Touch sensation is all that may be felt. There is no pain, redness or swelling following surgery with the clear corneal incision.

Is admission in the hospital required. How long should a patient be in the hospital?

No admission is required. Cataract surgery is done an a “day care” basis. Surgery takes 10 – 15 minutes. The patient is allowed to go home the next hour after surgery.

Which type of intraocular lens is good for vision?

At Vignesh Meenu Eye Clinic, we regularly insert foldable intraocular lens (IOL). There are many types of foldable lenses

  • Monofocal intraocular lens – which enables a person to be free of glasses for distance while glasses for reading (near vision) will be needed after surgery
  • Multifocal intraoclar lens – which enable a person to be free of glasses for both distance and near, essentially making a person glasses independant
  • Toricl intraocular lens – which correct astigmatism present before surgery and are available in both monofocal and multifocal variants.

It is better to go for the best lens suited for you after consutation and discussion with the surgeon. The intraocular lens implanted is for lifetime. The surgical equipment, instruments, visco elastics, medicines, sterility of operation theater, experience of the surgeon/ staff are also crucial for the visual outcome.

Are sutures required after surgery is over?

No, sutures are not required since the key hole incision is self sealing.

Should patient wear a patch after surgery?

No, the patient is given a pair of dark protective glasses soon after the surgery and not patch is applied to the eye.

When can the patient watch TV or read books, newpapers?

Patients can watch television or read paper that very day after surgery.

When can patient resume routine work?

After cataract surgery, a person can go back to their routine work within few days and do activities like cooking, driving, travelling, attending office etc.

Can both eyes be operated at the same time? If not what should be the interval of surgery between the two eyes?

We never operate both eyes on the same day as matter of precaution and safety. We can operate two eyes two to few days apart. Patients with cataract and very high powers in both eyes will need to get both eyes operated successively at a short gap for good restoration of vision.

Do patients need to wear glasses after surgery?

Usually, patients will not need to wear corrective glasses if they get a multifocal lens (conventional or toric) implanted. However, they will have to wear reading glasses if they get a monofocal lens implanted. However, it is pertinent to note that although highly specialized equipment (Immersion A – Scan) is used to predict the IOL power to be implanted, there is always possibibility of minor errors in IOL power. This may leave residual spectacle power, which can be corrected with glasses.

What happens if the cataract is not operated upon?

The vision reduces to a level where daily activities is not possible. A mature catract can cause inflammation  inside the eye, increased pressure inside the eye resulting in severe pain, headache, total loss of vision, vomiting, severe redness and swelling of the eyes. Management of the cataract is extremely difficult with suboptimal outcome.

Salient features in Vignesh Meenu Eye Clinic for Cataract Surgery

  • Anesthetist stand by for every surgery for monitoring patient’s vital parameters
  • Pre – operative and post – operative care and instillation of eye drops taught to the patient
  • Cataract surgery done for patients with insurance coverage under the “cashless” mode
  • Tarriffs are flexible according to the affordability of the patient

For more details please have a detailed talk with your ophthalmologist in Vignesh Meenu Eye Clinic. He will be able to guide and do the best for you.

The optic nerve carries all the information from the eyes to the brain which controls the entire visual system.  Glaucoma is a group of disease where there is damage to the optic nerve caused most often by increased pressure inside the eye.

  • How common is Glaucoma?

Glaucoma is the second commonest cause of blindness in the world next only to cataract and is the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide.

  • How is eye pressure increased?

The eye contains a fluid called aqueous humor. If this fluid is produced excessively or its drainage in the eye is improper or malfunctioning, the eye pressure increases.

  • Who can develop glaucoma?

Any individual above the age of 40 years may develop glaucoma. However, the following persons are at a higher risk of developing glaucoma namely those with

  • Family history of glaucoma
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Systemic hypertension
  • Thyroid diseases
  • Myopia
  • Eye injury
  • Intake of medications like steroids for a long time


  • What are the symptoms of glaucoma?

In the early stages, glaucoma does not produce any symptoms and many a times a person is not aware until the disease is advanced.  The patient may have symptoms like

  • Headache
  • Eyestrain
  • Frequent change of reading glasses
  • Loss of peripheral field of vision (side vision)

If the disease is left untreated, vision loss may worsen leading to total blindness over time.

  • What are the different types of glaucoma?



Glaucoma can be of the following types

  • Primary open angle glaucoma

In this form of glaucoma, the drainage passage through which the eye fluid drains out is physically open but may be poorly functioning. This form of glaucoma develops slowly and a person loses eyesight gradually. One eye may be affected more than the other eye.

  • Angle closure glaucoma

In this type of glaucoma, the drainage passage through which the eye fluid drains out is physically narrow or closed either suddenly or gradually. If it develops suddenly, the condition is painful and the patient will complain of redness, severe eye pain, drop in vision, headache, vomiting etc. This condition is one of the ocular emergencies and the patient will need medical care right away to prevent permanent damage to the eyesight.

  • How do I know whether I have glaucoma?

Anybody above 40 years should get their eyes checked up including the eye pressure. However, if there is any risk factor for development of glaucoma, then the eye examination should be done much earlier in life. Remember, glaucoma is asymptomatic until it is advanced.

  • How is glaucoma treated?

Glaucoma is a disease which can be well controlled if diagnosed early. However, if any visual damage occurs before diagnosis, it is irreversible. Glaucoma requires lifelong follow up and treatment. The most common form of treatment for glaucoma is medications in the form of eye drops. The doctor will prescribe eye drops to reduce the intraocular pressure in the eye and these have to be applied every day at the stipulated time. There are other forms of treatment like (a) laser (b) Surgery which will be decided by the ophthalmologist.

All forms of treatment aim to stop further damage to the optic nerve by lowering the pressure in the eye.


Squint otherwise called as strabismus is a condition in which there is misalignment of the eyes, due to which both eyes do not look in the same direction. The misalignment may be constant or it may appear only at times. Only one eye may be constantly misaligned or both eyes may misaligned alternatively.  This disease is very common in children though it may occur in adults also.

  • What causes squint?

The exact cause of squint is not known. Eye movement is controlled by six muscles attached on the outside of the eye which work in coordination. If there is any loss of coordination between the muscles, it will lead to misalignment.

Occasionally, a refractive error like hyperopia or high myopia or poor vision in the eye due to some other long standing eye disease like corneal opacity, cataract, retinal detachment can cause the eye to deviate.

  • What are the symptoms of squint?

When the eyes are not aligned properly, each eye is focusing on different objects. Therefore, two different images reach the brain which causes confusion and may affect vision in two ways:

  • Children tend to focus only on the good quality image and ignore the image coming from the deviated eye. This suppression of the image from the deviating eye results in poor development of vision in the eye which result is “Lazy Eye” or “Amblyopia”
  • In adults, patients cannot ignore the images from either eye and therefore will have double vision. This is often very annoying and interferes with day – to – day work.


  • What are the symptoms of squint?

Children may not express symptoms of double vision. If there is misalignment of eyes in any child more than one month old then the child should be evaluated by the ophthalmologist.

  • How is squint diagnosed?

Squint is diagnosed with the help of special tests done by the ophthalmologist in addition to routine clinical examination.

How is squint treated?

A detailed examination including checking the refractive error should be done. Squint can be managed with the help of

  • Corrective glasses
  • Exercises
  • Surgery

This is the name given for a group of eye problems caused by working on the computer for a very long time. CVS is not one specific disease entity but it encompasses a whole range of symptoms experienced by computer users.

How common is Computer Vision Syndrome?

This problem is very common among computer users. It has been shown that anywhere between 60% – 80% of the people who work on computers have any one of the symptoms of computer vision syndrome.

What causes Computer Vision Syndrome?

Normally a person blinks 15 – 18 times a minute and one of the main functions of blinking is to keep the eye wet and moist. It has been found that people who do work on the computer blink less frequently as low as 4 – 6 times a minute since they constantly stare at the computer monitor for hours together. This puts lot of strain on the eyes and makes the eye dry. 

Who else can develop Computer Vision Syndrome?

People working on computers are not the only ones who are vulnerable to computer vision syndrome. Kids who play portable video games, games on mobile phones or who use computers throughout the day either at school or home can experience symptoms related to computer usage.

What are the symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome?

A person may encounter certain symptoms due to prolonged use of computers. The symptoms include

  • Blurred vision
  • Eye pain
  • Discomfort
  • Headache
  • Neck or back pain
  • Eye irritation
  • Dry feeling in the eyes
  • Redness

These symptoms are more prominent in persons working in an air – conditioned room since the humidity is less and evaporation (of tears) is greater.

How do we get relief from Computer Vision Syndrome?

  • A person needs to make simple changes in lifestyle and work environment to minimize symptoms of computer vision syndrome.
  • Rearrange your desk – The optimal position to place the computer is at the level of your eye or slightly below your eye level about 25 inches away from your face. At this position


  • You need not strain or head or neck to see what is on the screen
  • You need not keep your eyes wide open to see the screen increasing the chance of dryness


  • Give break to your eyes – It is said that you have to look 20 feet from your computer screen every twenty minutes and blink consciously for 20 minutes. However, if this is not possible take short breaks from your work and come back and resume working. In this intermittent time, you will start blinking.
  • Change the lighting around you to reduce the glare on the computer screen. It helps to put a glare filter over the screen monitor to protect the eyes.
  • Make sure the air conditioner vent does not blow on to your face when you drive a car.
  • Make sure the air conditioner does not blow directly on to your face when you work in the room. Adjust your table place accordingly.
  • Adjust the brightness, contrast, font size in the computer screen to best suit your vision.


What is the treatment for Computer Vision Syndrome?

If you have any symptoms related to Computer Vision Syndrome, visit your ophthalmologist for an eye examination. The doctor will examine you and

  • Prescribe glasses if needed for your computer eye problems. These glasses may be specially designed to enable working comfortably on the computer like tinted glasses or anti reflection coated glasses which increase contrast sensitivity and filter out glare and reflective light to reduce symptoms of eye strain.
  • Educate you on the life style modifications you need to follow to minimize the symptoms
  • Prescribe certain group of medications called tear substitutes to help you get better.


Dry eye is a condition in which people do not produce enough tears or good quality tears to keep their eyes moist, healthy and comfortable. This condition is known as dry eye.

  • What are the causes of dry eye?

Dry eye develops either if there is lesser secretion of tears or there is greater evaporation of the tears as in conditions like computer vision syndrome. Sometimes it may be due to both factors. Some conditions where there is lesser secretion of tears include inflammatory diseases, auto – immune diseases, post radiation, neoplasm etc.

  • What are the symptoms of dry eye?

The common symptoms that a patient with dry eye experiences are

  • Excessive tearing
  • Stinging or burning of the eyes
  • Scratchiness
  • Stringing mucus in the eyes
  • Excessive irritation
  • Discomfort while wearing contact lenses
  • Redness of the eyes especially towards the end of the day.


  • My doctors says that I have dry eye but I have lot of tearing many a times. Why?

It is in fact a paradoxical response happening in a person with dry eyes. If adequate tears are not available to keep the eyes moist and wet enough, the eyes get irritated which sends distress signal to the brain. The brain in turn prompts the tear glands that make the tears (called the lacrimal glands) to release a large volume of tears overwhelming the tear drain gage system as a temporary measure to ameliorate the symptoms. This cause the paradoxical symptom of watering in the eyes.

  • How is dry eye treated?

The ophthalmologist will evaluate the cause of dry eyes and prescribe the necessary treatment for you. He will also give you certain advice on lifestyle modification to minimize dry eyes for worsening.  Dry eyes are treated with

  • Artificial tears which are similar to one’s own tears. They lubricate the eyes and keep the eyes moist
  • Preservative free eye drops are available for people who need to use artificial tears vey frequently. These eye drops do not cause any adverse effects attributed to the presence of preservatives like redness, irritation etc.
  • Some of the lifestyle modification a person should follow include (1) avoid working in a warm room (2) use of hair dryers, wind blowers (3) direct exposure to Air conditioner vent in cars/ office/ rooms (4) avoid strong wind

Diabetic retinopathy is the most common eye disease among people with diabetes mellitus – either type I or type II. High blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels in the retina. The weakened blood vessels may leak fluid and blood damaging the retina and causing loss of vision.

Who is at risk for developing diabetic retinopathy?

All diabetics both type I and type II are at risk for developing diabetic retinopathy. Patients can develop retinopathy either if they have very poorly controlled blood sugar levels and / or they have diabetes mellitus for a longer duration in their life. In addition, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, anemia, kidney disease, pregnancy can all place a patient at a greater risk for developing diabetic retinopathy.

How can diabetes affect the eyes?

  • High blood sugar can damage the tiny blood vessels in the retina.
  • The tiny blood vessels may swell and get clogged and do not allow enough blood to flow through
  • These tiny blood vessels swell and become leaky and fluid leaks from these damaged vessels into the retina
  • As diabetic retinopathy worsens, new blood vessels grow on the retina
  • These blood vessels are structurally very weak and break easily and therefore leak blood into the vitreous of the eye
  • The leaking blood keeps light from reaching the retina
  • In the later stages, detachment of the retina occurs.

What are the symptoms of diabetic retinopathy?

In the early stages, there might not be any symptoms since the central portion of the retina may not be involved. As the retinopathy advances, the patient may notice

  • Blurred vision
  • Floaters which are tiny black spots, little threads or cobwebs floating in front of the eyes
  • Sudden loss of vision if there is bleeding inside the eye
  • Temporary or permanent loss of vision

What are the types of Diabetic Retinopathy?

  • Non – proliferative

This type of diabetic retinopathy refers to the early stage of the disease

  • Proliferative

This refers to the severe advanced stage of the disease when leaky, structurally weak, new blood vessels develop on the retina

  • Macular edema

This develops at any stage of the disease. Fluid and exudates collect in the macula of the retina (central part of the retina responsible for crisp, sharp and clear vision)

How to prevent diabetic retinopathy?

Although it may be totally possible to prevent development of diabetic retinopathy, keeping blood sugar under control along with good control of other parameters like blood pressure, cholestrol levels will help minimize the risk to a great extent.

How frequently should i get my eye examined?

If you hve diabetes, you should get an annual eye examination done by your ophthalmologist. One you develop diabetic retinopathy, the ophthalmolgist will advise further investigations and treatment. A periodic follow up, the frequency of which will be decided and advised by your ophthalmolgist basd on the severity of the disease is mandatory.

How is diabetic retinopathy treated?

There are different methods of treatment of diabetic retinopathy based on the presentation and severity of the disease. The various methods available are

  • Laser photocoagulation
  • Intravitreal injection
  • Vitrectomy

The treatment best for you will be decided by your ophthalmologist

What is laser treatment and how successful is it?

The aim of laser treatment is not restore lost vision but to preserve existing vision. Laser beam delivered to the eye shrinks the abnormal blood vessels so that they no longer leak. This may lead to tiny spots in your field of vision which usually fade and disappear with time.

What are intravitreal injections and what is their role in management of diabetic retinopathy?

There are certain mediciations called Anti – VEGF (anti – vascular endothelial growth factors) like Lucentis, Avastin, Macugen which are injected into the eye as intravitreal injection in diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. They prevent development of new, leaky vessles on the retina. They are used along with laser treatment for treatment of diabetic vitreous hemorrage and retinal detachment.

What is vitrectomy?

Vitrectomy is a surgical procedure where all the blood in the vitreous is removed and all abnomal adhesions excied. This is usually done when the patient presents in advanced stage with either hemorrhagein the vitreous or with retinal detachment.

Will I go blind if i suffer from Diabetic Retinopahthy?

YES, if the disease progresses and is not treated at an early stage, there is chance for visual loss.

What should I do if I have Diabetic Retinopathy?


  • Keep your blood glucose level and blood pressure under control
  • Have an annual eye examination by your ophthalmologist and call your eye doctor between scheduled examinations if you have any problems o r questions
  • Eat a healthy balanced diet, watch your weight, do mild exercise everyday
  • Quit smoking


Many older people develop degeneration in the macula (which is the central part of the retina responsible for crisp, clear and sharp vision) as part of the aging process in the body. This is called Age Related Macular De-generation (ARMD)

What are the symptoms of ARMD?

In a patient with ARMD, there will be symptoms such as loss of clarity while reading, blurred vision, dark areas or distortion in central vision (when things appear curved or fussy) and over time permanent loss of central vision. The peripheral vision is usually spared until the late stage of the disease.

  • What are the different types of ARMD?

There are broadly two types of ARMD

  • Dry ARMD

This type is common in the early stages of ARMD. It is seen in a majority of patients (90%) suffering from this disorder. It occurs when the light sensitive cells in the macular slows degenerate leading to blurring of vision and overtime loss of central vision. The visual loss is gradual and not reversible. Therefore, patients need to monitor their central vision regularly. If any change is noticed, an opthalmologist needs to be contacted immediately.

  • Wet ARMD

This type of ARMD is relatively rare affecting nearly 10% of the patients with ARMD. Nevertheless, this more severe than dry ARMD and causes severe, irreversible loss of central vision within a relatively short span of time. Wet macular degeneration develops when abnormal blood vessels behind the retina start to grow under the macular. These new blood vessels are structurally weak and therefore leak blood and fluid in the macula and cause the macula to swell thereby resulting in loss of central vision.

  • What are the symptoms of ARMD?

If a person notices any new distortion (seeing straight lines curved or fussy, noticing distortion of a grid pattern like squares) or blurred vision he should report to the doctor immediately. Early detection of the ARMD is the key to successful treatment of the disease which will prevent further visual loss.

  • Can ARMD be prevented?

The exact cause of ARMD is not known. Thought it cannot be prevented, a healthy lifestyle without smoking and intake of a balanced, good diet may reduce the risk.

  • What is the treatment for ARMD?

High dose multi vitamins containing anti – oxidants have been shown to decrease the risk of visual loss in patients with dry ARMD. The anti – oxidants specifically slow down macular cell death.

There are several treatment options for wet ARMD although the best outcome occurs when this disease is diagnosed and treated early. The various treatment modalities include

  • Thermal laser (Photo dynamic therapy)
  • Anti – VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors) like Lucentics, Avasin or Macugen OR
  • A combination of these


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